Water is vital for the survival of human beings. But what to do if we don’t find sufficient water to drink? Don’t you think we should use water judiciously?
As we know that various parts of India are already facing a huge water crisis. Soon there will be a time when we will have no water to drink.
We are already getting signs of it. As per the recent report by UNESCO ahead of World Water Day on March 22 displays that the water crisis will be escalating across India by 2050.
Central India is staring at excavating water scarcity. This means withdrawal of 40% of the renewable surface water resources.
The already stressed groundwater resources will face even greater pressure in north India.
SK Sarkar, who heads the water resources division at policy think-tank TERI, also given a statement regarding this. He said that groundwater depletion was extremely severe in Punjab, Haryana, and Delhi. “Groundwater depletion carries with it the risk of salinity,“.
Quality of water is poor
Also, as per the report on a study done by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. The study has given its future estimations. South and central India will experience high levels of risk from poor water quality in its river basins by 2050.
According to SWA Naqvi, a scientist at the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) and NIO director. Contamination is not only a problem with surface water resources. But also with the groundwater. He said “There is metallic contamination but also contamination from improper disposal of human excreta,”
Dumping fecal matter is the cause
There is growing evidence to show that fecal matter is the main reason for deteriorating water quality. As there is a dumping of fecal matter in the ground.
It is either because of open defecation or soak-pits toilets with improper disposal of the fecal matter. This leads to contamination of groundwater aquifers with E-coli bacteria. The experts revealed.
The UNESCO report said that over 2 billion people globally do not have access to safe drinking water. But almost twice that number of people do not have access to safe sanitation. The demand for water is expected to rise by almost one-third by 2050 compared to 2010 levels.
China, India, United States, Russia, and Pakistan are the largest consumers of water at present. Also, they will continue to be top water consumers in 2050.
The report recommends the nature-based solution
The report gave the reason for the water scarcity. It is due to population growth and climate change. Also, this is not just fuelling water scarcity but also flooding in areas. Floods are common even in those areas which are not flood-prone historically.
According to the report, the number of people exposed to flood risk raised from 1.2 billion today to 1.6 billion in 2050. Moreover, assets valued at the US $45 trillion will also be at risk.
The report suggested using nature-based solution. It includes the example of small-scale water harvesting structure in Rajasthan. This is successful in reducing the water demand of 1,000 villages.
Another example of this is the underground using of floods for irrigation (UTFI) project. This is being piloted in Ganga river basin.
UTFI is a way of managing both flooding and drought because the method involves channelizing excess flow.
It is during the wet season for the recharge of aquifers. Thus decreases flooding downstream. A greater recharge of groundwater helps to meet wants during a dry spell.
Thus, UNESCO report shows that we have to use the water judiciously without wasting a single drop of it.