What is the drip irrigation? Drip irrigation actually is a type of micro-irrigation. It is mainly beneficial in the regions which are mostly dependent on monsoon or falls in dry regions. This system relies on the concept of providing water to the plant in a way that it can drip slowly and directly to the root of the plant. No matter is it provided from over the surface or system buried under the surface. The main aim is to reduce evaporation and prevent wastage of water. This system supplies water through pipes, valves, emitter, and tubing. The efficiency of this system depends on how well it is installed, maintained, and operated. This system is more efficient than the sprinkler irrigation system.
There have been a lot of evidence proving that ancient people were also aware of this technology. Some ancient pieces of literature from China describes the use of buried clay pots filled with water for purpose of irrigation.
Modern drip irrigation was first started in Germany when researchers began experimenting with clay pipes network for irrigation and drainage system. Plastic pipes system was first introduced by Australia for drip irrigation and for holding and distributing water. Later plastic pipe model of Australia did improve in Israel by Mr Simcha Blass and his son. They first used emitters instead of using tiny holes because tiny holes would easily block for various reasons. In Israeli drip irrigation system, water flows with velocity by using long passageway to the plastic emitters.
The invention of impact sprinkler in 1930 proved to be a great achievement, which offered an alternative for surface irrigation. Drip irrigation now a day’s also uses a device, micro-spray, heads which sprays water in a small area instead of dripping emitters. These are mostly used on vine crops and wider root zones. Subsurface drip irrigation mainly consists of temporarily or permanently buried pipeline where drip tape usually placed below or at the plant root. This system is beneficial in row crop system where water supply is very low.
In India where agriculture largely depends on water, there is the great significance of this technology. The government of India is encouraging drip water irrigation system in the country. Many schemes are on the way to provide loans and subsidies to the farmer so that they can use this awesome technology. In addition to this many social reformers are in action to help the farmers.